Bruce Momjian

Postgres Blog


This blog is about my work on the Postgres open source database, and is published on Planet PostgreSQL. PgLife allows monitoring of all Postgres community activity.

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Security Using Ssl Certificates

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Having covered ssl certificate creation and the use of certificate authorities (ca), I would like to put it all together and show how certificates and certificate authorities work to ensure trusted Postgres communication.

I have created a diagram showing server, client, and certificate authority certificates. None of these certificates is secret, e.g. the server sends its ssl certificate to the client, and visa versa. In the diagram, the server and client use the same certificate authority certificate. (Intermediate certificate authorities could also be used.)

When the client connects, the server sends its certificate to the client. The client uses the public key in its certificate authority certificate to verify that the server certificate was signed by its trusted certificate authority (the red line). It then uses the public key in the server certificate to encrypt a secret key that is sent to the server. Only a server with the matching private key can reply to generate a session key. It is not the possession of the server certificate that proves the server's identity but the possession of the private key that matches the public key stored in the server's certificate. The same is true for client certificates used for client host and user authentication (the blue line).

Hopefully this diagram helped you see how the same certificate authority certificate on the server and client allows for identity verification. Interestingly, identity verification is not required for two systems to communicate in an eavesdrop-proof manner, but if you can't be sure who you are communicating with, it isn't very useful.

 


Security Creating Ssl Certificates

Thursday, January 12, 2017

Having covered the choice of certificate authorities, I want to explain the internals of creating server certificates in Postgres. The instructions are already in the Postgres documentation.

When using these instructions for creating a certificate signing request (csr), two files are created:

  • certificate signing request file with extension req
  • key file, containing public and private server keys, with extension pem

(It is also possible to use an existing key file.) You can view the contents of the csr using openssl, e.g.:

$ openssl req -in server.req -text
Certificate Request:
    Data:
        Version: 0 (0x0)
        Subject: … CN=momjian.us …
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption
                Public-Key: (2048 bit)
                Modulus:
                    00:b2:ea:53:a6:5e:0a:bd:dd:59:08:52:0d:bb:77:
                    …
                Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
        Attributes:
            a0:00
    Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
…
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
…
-----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----

The first argument to the openssl command-line tool always starts with a subcommand, in this case req. (The openssl manual pages are split based on the subcommand, so man req shows openssl arguments for the subcommand req.)

The common name (cn) shown above is potentially checked by the client. The encoded section ("certificate request") can be suppressed with -noout. The file server.req already contains this information in text format because -text was specified during its creation.

The server public and private keys stored in privkey.pem can also be viewed:

$ openssl pkey -in privkey.pem -text
-----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
MIIEvwIBADANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAASCBKkwggSlAgEAAoIBAQCy6lOmXgq93VkI
…
-----END PRIVATE KEY-----
Private-Key: (2048 bit)
modulus:
    00:b2:ea:53:a6:5e:0a:bd:dd:59:08:52:0d:bb:77:
…
-----END PRIVATE KEY-----
Private-Key: (2048 bit)
modulus:
    00:a3:ad:e4:61:2b:5f:c0:5b:23:fc:8c:b4:ab:70:
    …
publicExponent: 65537 (0x10001)
    …
privateExponent:
    …
prime1:
    …
prime2:
    …
exponent1:
    …
exponent2:
    …
coefficient:
    …

All of this can be very complex so I have created a diagram which illustrates what is happening. At the top-left is the server key generated by openssl req. This command also creates the certificate signing request (the csr, top-right) which contains:

  • Certificate signing information in X.509 format, e.g. common name (cn)
  • Public server key to be used by clients wishing to authenticate the server's identity
  • The above signed by the server's private key to prove that the server owner supplied this information

The certificate signing request (csr) can't be used as a certificate because it is unsigned. For self-signed certificates, the server's private key is used to sign the csr. (These are the instructions given in the Postgres documentation.) A more powerful option, as I mentioned in my previous blog post, is to use a local certificate authority. In my diagram, a certificate authority (bottom-left) uses its private key to sign the csr and create a certificate (bottom-right).

Once the server has a certificate, any client who has the signer of the server's certificate in their ~/.postgresql/root.crt file can authenticate the server certificate by using the sslmode connection parameter verify-ca. They can also verify that the certificate was created for the specific server's host name by checking the common name (cn) using verify-full. (Clients can record revoked certificates in ~/.postgresql/root.crl.)

Hopefully you can make better use of ssl server certificates now that you understand how they are created, inspected, and verified.

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Security Ssl Certificates and Certificate Authorities

Monday, January 9, 2017

When setting up ssl in Postgres, you can't just enable ssl. You must also install a signed certificate on the server.

The first step is to create a certificate signing request (csr) file that contains the host name of the database server. Once created, there are three ways to sign a csr to create a certificate:

If the certificate is to be self-signed, use the key created by the certificate signing request to create a certificate. If using a local certificate authority, sign the csr file with the local certificate authority's key.

The use of public certificate authorities doesn't make sense for most databases because it allows third parties to create trusted certificates. Their only reasonable use is if you wish to allow public certificate authorities to independently issue certificates that you wish to trust. This is necessary for browsers because they often connect to unaffiliated websites where trust must be established by a third party. (Browsers include a list of public certificate authorities who can issue website certificates it trusts.)

Issuing certificates to clients as well enables additional features:

These items require the server and client certificates be signed by the same certificate authority.

Ssl setup in Postgres can be complicated, but it offers a unique set of security and usability features that are unmatched.

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Tip Use Kill -9 Only in Emergencies

Friday, January 6, 2017

During normal server shutdown, sessions are disconnected, dirty shared buffers and pending write-ahead log (wal) records are flushed to durable storage, and a clean shutdown record is written to pg_control. During the next server start, pg_control is checked, and if the previous shutdown was clean, startup can ignore the wal and start immediately.

Unfortunately, a clean shutdown can take some time, and impatient database administrators might get into the habit of using kill -9 or pg_ctl -m immediate to quicken the shutdown. While this does have the intended effect, and you will not lose any committed transactions, it greatly slows down the next database startup because all wal generated since the last completed checkpoint must be replayed. You can identify an unclean shutdown by looking at the server logs for these two ominous lines:

LOG:  database system was interrupted; last known up at 2016-10-25 12:17:28 EDT
LOG:  database system was not properly shut down; automatic recovery in progress

These crash database shutdowns can also happen if the computer crashes, the operating system crashes, or if a proper database shutdown script isn't triggered on computer shutdown.

So, in summary, administrators should avoid Postgres crash shutdowns unless shutdown time is more precious than startup time. Every time those log lines appear, Postgres is doing more work than would have been necessary if the previous shutdown had been clean.

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Tip Controlling Autovacuum

Tuesday, January 3, 2017

Unlike other database systems, Postgres makes the cleanup process visible and tunable to users. Autovacuum performs recycling of old rows and updates optimizer statistics. It appears in ps command output, the pg_stat_activity system view, and optionally in the server logs via log_autovacuum_min_duration.

Postgres also allows fine-grained control over the autovacuum cleanup process. Occasionally users find that cleanup is slowing the system down, and rather than modifying the behavior of autovacuum, they decide to turn it off via the autovacuum setting.

However, turning off autovacuum can cause problems. Initially the system will run faster since there is no cleanup overhead, but after a while old rows will clog up user tables and indexes, leading to increasing slowness. Once that happens, you can turn on autovacuum again, and it will recycle the old rows and free up space, but there will be much unused space that can't be reused quickly, or perhaps ever.

Turning off autovacuum is kind of like someone trying to save time by not changing the engine oil in their car. They are correct that for a while their car will be in the shop less often, but ultimately the car will be in the shop for a long time, or will stop working. Therefore, don't turn off autovacuum.

Another problem is that while autovacuum is turned off, optimizer statistics were not being updated, perhaps causing slower execution plans. Fortunately restarting autovacuum does fully fix that problem.

Now that we know that turning off autovacuum is a bad idea, what are the options if administrators want to reduce the overhead of autovacuum. Well, first, there are many autovacuum tuning parameters that allow autovacuum activity to happen less often, or consume fewer resources while running.

A more aggressive, and perhaps creative, approach is to change when autovacuum runs. Most systems have busy times and idle times. Sometimes this can be determined by the time of the day or the day of the week, e.g. Sundays, 0200-0500. In other cases it can be determined by the system's load average or number of active sql sessions in pg_stat_activity.

No matter how it is determined, wouldn't it make sense for autovacuum to run during these idle periods, and not run during busy periods? Well, it's not quite that simple. You don't really want to force autovacuum to run during idle times if there is no useful activity to perform, nor do you want it to never run during busy times in case there is a massive delete that requires cleanup or a large data change that requires updated optimizer statistics.

What you want is to encourage autovacuum to run during idle periods, and discourage it from running during busy times. Fortunately, that is easy to do, especially with the alter system command added in Postgres 9.4.

Let's assume you have your own method to determine busy and idle times. When an idle time starts, simply execute:

ALTER SYSTEM SET autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = 0.1;
ALTER SYSTEM SET autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor = 0.05;
 
SELECT pg_reload_conf();
 pg_reload_conf
----------------
 t

Of course, if you changed these settings in postgresql.conf you can use this in psql to reduce the current value of autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor by half:

SELECT current_setting('autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor')::float8 / 2 AS scale
\gset
ALTER SYSTEM SET autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor = :scale;

You might also want to reduce autovacuum_freeze_max_age and autovacuum_multixact_freeze_max_age during this period. Then, at the end of the idle period, run this:

ALTER SYSTEM RESET autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor;
ALTER SYSTEM RESET autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor;
 
SELECT pg_reload_conf();
 pg_reload_conf
----------------
 t

This will set the values back to their defaults. Pretty simple, huh? Yet effective. A more sophisticated approach would be to proportionally decrease these settings based on the load on the system.

Let's walk through how this works. Suppose we don't change any settings during idle times and use the default autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor of 20%. If a table has 19.5% expired rows at midnight, autovacuum will not run. When the percentage of expired rows reaches 20% at 11am, autovacuum will run and remove the expired rows. Now suppose that autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor is reduced by half at midnight — autovacuum will run and all tables will have less than 10% expired rows by the time the idle period ends. Now, during the busy time autovacuum will only run if a table has increased from 10% expired rows to 20%.

It would be nice if this proportional behavior could be added to autovacuum but I am not sure how to implement that in a clean way.

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